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Sunday, 20 October 2013

Information Diabetes or Diabetes mellitus, what is Diabetes? , Types of Diabetes

Information Diabetes or Diabetes mellitus, what is Diabetes? , Types of Diabetes

Diabetes or Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. The blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three major types of diabetes mellitus (DM).

1. Type 1 DM results from the body's inability to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or use an insulin force. This form was previously known as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus “(IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes."

2. Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells do not use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an complete deficiency of insulin. This form is called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult onset diabetes “.

3. The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without previously diagnosed diabetes develop high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects in insulin secretion, diabetes associated with cystic fibrosis, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.

If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. The serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina). Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as smoking cessation and maintaining a healthy body weight.

All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became available in 1921, and type2 diabetes can be controlled with medication. Insulin and some oral medications can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), which can be dangerous if severe. Both types 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that cannot be cured. Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success in type 1 DM, gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery.

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