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Sunday, 20 October 2013

History of diabetes, diabetes History



History of diabetes,  Diabetes History



Diabetes is one of the first diseases described, an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BC mention “too great emptying of urine." The first cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes. Indian doctors all at the same time identify the disease and are classified as madhumeha or “honey urine," and noted that the urine may attract ants. The term "diabetes" or “pass through" was first used in 230 BC by the Greeks Apollonius of Memphis. The disease is rare in the Roman Empire, with comment that Galen had seen only two cases during his career. This is possibly due to diet and lifestyle of ancient people, or because clinical symptoms were observed in the advanced stage of the disease. Galen called the disease “diarrhea of urine “(urinosa diarrhea). The earliest surviving work with a detailed reference to diabetes is that of Aretaeus of Cappadocia (second or early third EC). He described the symptoms and course of the disease, which he attributed to the wet and cold, reflecting the beliefs of the "School of tires”. He hypothesized a relationship of diabetes with other diseases and discusses the differential diagnosis of snakebite, which also causes excessive thirst. His work is still unknown in the West until the mid 16th century, when, in 1552, the first Latin edition was published in Venice.

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by Indian physician Sushruta and Charaka in 400-500 CE with type 1 associated with youth and type 2 are overweight. The term “mellitus " or " honey " was added by the Briton John Roll in late 1700 to remove the condition of diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination. Effective treatment was not developed until the early part of the 20th century, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best insulin isolated and purified in 1921 and 1922 . This was followed by the development of long-acting insulin NPH in the 1940s.

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