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Sunday, 20 October 2013

Gestational diabetes, What is Gestational diabetes?



Gestational diabetes, What is Gestational diabetes?


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is similar to type2 diabetes in many respects; it involves a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and sensitivity. It occurs in about 2-5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable but requires careful medical supervision during pregnancy. About 20-50 % of women affected by the development of type 2 diabetes in the future.


Although it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or the mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital anomalies of the central nervous system and cardiac and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A cesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.

A 2008 study conducted in the U.S. found that the number of American women entering pregnancy with preexisting diabetes is increasing. In fact, the rate of diabetes in pregnant women has more than doubled from 1999 to 2005. This is particularly problematic as diabetes raises the risk of complications during pregnancy and increases the possibility that the children of diabetic mothers to become diabetic in the future.

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