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Sunday, 20 October 2013

Causes of diabetes, main causes of diabetes.

Causes of diabetes, main causes of diabetes.

 Type 1

Type1 diabetes is partly inherited and then triggered by certain infections, with some evidence pointing at Coxsackie B4 virus. A genetic element in individual susceptibility to some of these triggers has been traced to particular HLA genotypes (i.e., the identifiers of "self" is based genetic immune system) . However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, type 1 diabetes mellitus seems to require an environmental trigger. The onset of type 1 diabetes is not related to lifestyle.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors and genetics. A number of lifestyle factors known to be important for the development of type2 diabetes, such as: obesity (as defined by a body mass index of more than thirty), lack of physical activity, a poor diet, stress and urbanization. Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in people of Chinese and Japanese, 60-80 % of cases in people of European and African ancestry, and 100 % of Pima Indians and Islanders Pacific. Those who are obese tend to have a high waist-hip ratio.

Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type2 diabetes. The consumption of sugar -sweetened beverages excess is associated with increased risk. The type of fat in the diet is also important, with saturated fats and Trans fatty acids increase risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats decrease the risk. Eat plenty of white rice seems to play a role in the increased risk. It is believed that a lack of exercise to cause 7% of cases.

The following is a complete list of other causes of diabetes:

1. Genetic defects of β -cell function

2. Onset diabetes of youth maturity

3. Mitochondrial DNA mutations

4. Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action

5. Defects in conversion of proinsulin

6. Insulin gene mutations

7. Insulin receptor mutations

8. Exocrine pancreatic defects

9. Chronic pancreatitis

10. pancreatectomy

11. pancreatic carcinoma

12. Cystic fibrosis

13. Hemochromatosis

14. pancreatopathy fibrocalculous

* Endocrinopathies

1. Growth hormone excess ( acromegaly)

2. Cushing syndrome

3. hyperthyroidism

4. Pheochromocytoma

5. Glucagonoma

* Infections

1. Cytomegalovirus

2. Coxsackie B virus

* Drugs

1. Glucocorticoids

2. Thyroid hormone

3. β agonists – adrenergic

4. statins

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